An insurance premium is the amount of money that an individual or business must pay for an insurance policy. The insurance premium is income for the insurance company, once it is earned, and also represents a liability in that the insurer must provide coverage for claims being made against the policy.

BREAKING DOWN 'Insurance Premium'

The price of an insurance premium for a given insurance policy can vary and depends on a variety of factors. Among those factors are the type of insurance coverage, the likelihood of a claim being made, the area where the policyholder lives or operates a business, the behavior of the person or business being covered, and the amount of competition that the insurer faces. For example, the likelihood of a claim being made against a teenage driver living in an urban area may be higher or lower compared to a teenage driver in a suburban area. In general, the greater the risk associated with a policy, the more expensive the insurance policy will be.

Policyholders may choose from a number of options for paying their insurance premiums. Some insurers allow the policyholder to pay the insurance premium in installments, such as monthly or semi-annual payments, or may require the policyholder to pay the total amount before coverage starts.

Insurance premiums may increase after the policy period ends. The insurer may increase the premium if claims were made during the previous period, if the risk associated with offering a particular type of insurance increases, or if the cost of providing coverage increases.

Insurers use the insurance premium to cover the liabilities associated with the policies they underwrite. They may also invest the premium in order to generate higher returns and offset some of the costs of providing the insurance coverage, which can help an insurer keep prices competitive. Insurers will invest the premiums in assets with varying levels of liquidity and return, but they are required to maintain a certain level of liquidity. State insurance regulators set the amount of liquid assets required to ensure insurers can pay claims.

Actuaries, Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Insurance Premium Prices

Generally, insurance companies employ professionals known as actuaries to determine risk levels and premium prices for a given insurance policy. The emergence of sophisticated algorithms and artificial intelligence is fundamentally changing how insurance is priced and sold, and there is an active debate happening between those who say algorithms will replace human actuaries in the future and those who contend the increasing use of algorithms will require greater participation of human actuaries and send the profession into a "next level."
Some Advantages and Disadvantages for injection molding - Injection Molding is one of the most favorable ways when it comes to molding plastic, but is it really the best way? Here are some advantages and disadvantages to injection plastic molding.

Advantages of Injection Molding

There are several advantages when using injection molding over other plastic molding process.  It allows plastic-molding companies to be able to produce more complex products in different shapes and designs that otherwise would be to difficult or impossible to make the cost of the product would be considerable higher as well. With the injection molding process molding companies will be able to mass produce parts and create the product at the same time. Injection molding creates a high production out put while having a low labor cost and it is an easy process to repeat. Injection molding allows for workload to be cut down there isn’t much to do after the molding process, because the product is essentially finished.

It also helps to save resources for plastic molding companies, because the company will be able to recycle material or any unused molding plastic or scraps. Those items can be melted down and reground for possible future use, therefore the company has very little wasted material.  Another advantage to injection molding is the flexible design and the wide range of materials that can be used. Not only can injection molding help save a plastic molding company money and time it also allows for mass production in a more efficient way, that way productivity may increase, but there are still some minor disadvantages to injection molding.

Disadvantages of Injection Molding

Even though there are a lot of advantages to injection molding there still are some minor disadvantages when it comes to this process. The main disadvantage to injection molding is the cost of the machines, for an injection molding machines, the cost could be anywhere from $5000 to $50,000 the size of the machine could fit in a 1 car garage. For a newer machine it could range from $375,00 to $400,000 if you are a well-established company then there is no problem, but for those start up companies this could be a set back.

The designs will have to be created before any process may begin, this could put production behind schedule or cost more money for the company. There are also some limitations to what types of designs can be made with this process. Though there are some minor disadvantages, the main concern is the cost of the injection molding machine, the process could possible be a set back for certain companies who don’t have a set of rule to follow, lastly there are some limitations as to what may be designed when using the injection molding process.

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METTLER TOLEDO is a leading global manufacturer of precision instruments and services for use in laboratories and manufacturing. We offer weighing, analytical and inspection solutions along our customers' value chain to help them streamline processes, enhance productivity, reach compliance with regulatory requirements or optimize cost. Discover our high end products such as industrial scales, Mettler-Toledo Rainin, LLC pipettes or process analytics equipment.

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Durkheim was born in Epinal, France. He came from a long line of devout French Jews; his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather had all been rabbis. He began his education in a rabbinical school, but at an early age, decided not to follow in his family's footsteps and switched schools, realizing that he preferred to study religion from an agnostic standpoint as opposed to being indoctrinated.
Durkheim entered the École Normale Supérieure (ENS) in 1879.


Durkheim became interested in a scientific approach to society very early on in his career, which meant the first of many conflicts with the French academic system, which had no social science curriculum at the time. Durkheim found humanistic studies uninteresting, turning his attention from psychology and philosophy to ethics and eventually, sociology. He graduated with a degree in philosophy in 1882. Durkheim's views could not get him a major academic appointment in Paris, so from 1882 to 1887 he taught philosophy at several provincial schools. In 1885 he left for Germany, where he studied sociology for two years. Durkheim's period in Germany resulted in the publication of numerous articles on German social science and philosophy, which gained recognition in France, earning him a teaching appointment at the University of Bordeaux in 1887.
This was an important sign of the change of times, and the growing importance and recognition of the social sciences. From this position, Durkheim helped reform the French school system and introduced the study of social science in its curriculum. Also in 1887, Durkheim married Louise Dreyfus, with whom he later had two children.

In 1893, Durkheim published his first major work, The Division of Labor in Society, in which he introduced the concept of "anomie", or the breakdown of the influence of social norms on individuals within a society. In 1895, he published The Rules of Sociological Method, his second major work, which was a manifesto stating what sociology is and how it ought to be done. In 1897, he published his third major work,Suicide: A Study in Sociology, a case study exploring the differing suicide rates among Protestants and Catholics and arguing that stronger social control among Catholics results in lower suicide rates.
By 1902, Durkheim had finally achieved his goal of attaining a prominent position in Paris when he became the chair of education at the Sorbonne. Durkheim also served as an advisor to the Ministry of Education. In 1912, he published his last major work,The Elementary Forms of The Religious Life, a book that analyzes religion as a social phenomenon.
Overcome Virtual Network Management Challenges
The virtualized network poses challenges to network management systems -- and as more hardware components become virtualized, that challenge becomes even greater. This handbook discusses the steps IT must take to both build and corral their virtualized infrastructure.

Network devices including switches and routers use a variety of protocols and algorithms to exchange information and to transport data to its intended endpoint. Every endpoint (sometimes called a host) in a network has a unique identifier, often an IP address or a Media Access Control address, that is used to indicate the source or destination of the transmission. Endpoints can include servers, personal computers, phones and many types of network hardware.

Wired and wireless technologies
Networks may use a mix of wired and wireless technologies. Network devices communicate through a wired or wireless transmission medium. In wired networks, this may consist of optical fiber, coaxial cable or copper wires in the form of a twisted pair. Wireless network pathways include computer networks that use wireless data connections for connecting endpoints. These endpoints include broadcast radio, cellular radio, microwave and satellite.

Networks can be private or public. Private networks require the user to obtain permission to gain access. Typically, this is granted either manually by a network administrator or obtained directly by the user via a password or with other credentials. Public networks like the internet do not restrict access.

LANs, WANs, MANs and SANs
Networks may also be categorized by the scope of their domains. Local area networks (LANs) interconnect endpoints in a single domain. Wide area networks interconnect multiple LANs, and metropolitan area networks interconnect computer resources in a geographic area. Storage area networks interconnect storage devices and resources. Networks may also be divided into subnetworks, also called subnets.

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Buyer's Handbook
How to find the best network switches for your enterprise
Buyer's Handbook
An edge router buying guide for your next network upgrade
The changing role of hardware used in networks in this virtual era
Network protocols and standards specify exactly how data should be transmitted and received. Modern, packet switched networks use protocols -- TCP/IP being the most widespread -- to establish a standard means of communication. The Ethernet standard establishes a common language for wired networks to communicate; the 802.11 standard does the same for wireless LANs.

A network's capacity -- that is, how much traffic it can transmit at any one time -- is measured in terms of bandwidth. Bandwidth is quantified by the theoretical maximum number of bits per second that can pass through a network device. Throughput is a measure of the actual speed of a successful transmission after accounting for factors like latency, processing power and protocol overhead.

Types of computer network topologies
Network topologies represent the physical or logical structure of a network, with common topologies that include the following major types:

Full mesh networks, in which all nodes are connected to each other and can exchange data.
Partial mesh networks, in which some of the nodes are connected to each other in a full mesh scheme, but others are only connected to one or two other nodes in the network.
Point to point networks, which is a connection between only two endpoints.

Network fabric, in which endpoints transfer data to each other through interconnecting switches and can connect to any other by taking a path through a criss-cross pattern of connections.
A tree network, which is a combination of two or more star networks connected together.
A star network, in which the nodes are connected to a common central computer.

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A Bus, a circuit arrangement where all network devices are attached directly to a transmission line directly, and while all signals pass through all devices, each device has a unique identity and recognizes signals intended for it.
A new report from Research and Markets, titled Global Printed Circuit Board Industry 2012-2017: Trends, Profits and Forecast Analysis, was recently released. In addition to giving an outlook on the growth of the PCB industry, the report also looks at various challenges that circuit board manufacturers can expect to face in the coming years.

It is no secret that consumers have come to demand the latest and greatest in terms of what their technology can offer them. In addition to communication devices, such as smartphones and tablets, the industry is seeing even more innovation in watches, music equipment and the capabilities of digital photography, among others. This creates the challenge for PCB manufacturers that must keep up with the latest product design trends in order to help other companies make those next steps in the marketplace. The combination of factors such as the recession in the global economy and the change in prices for various raw materials will also play a PCB companies will succeed moving forward.

PCB Design Leads to Quality and Efficiency

The design of your printed circuit board undoubtedly plays a major role in whether or not you get the performance you need out of your application. Your PCB design should be simple so that your components can be easily affixed to the board and fit nicely into the rest of your product. In addition, you want to be able to design boards that are thoroughly tested before shipment so that you can have peace of mind knowing that you will not run into an error.

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Contact an expert at your PCB manufacturer in order to get tips for how to optimize your design and the testing process so you can seamlessly design, order and receive your circuit boards without hassle.
Printing activity
Printing activity became one needs at this present time. Printing device is a device created to display the output of a processing on a computer. There are many types of printing devices including printing paper, fabric printing, banner printing, printing up to 3 dimensions. On this occasion we will discuss about the explanation of each - each of the printing device.

Type A Machines launched the new Series 1 3D Printer with a few improved features:
  • Easier platform leveling;
  • More convenient Z-limit switch adjustment;
  • The 'Top Hat' a new filament management system for improved mounting and swapping PLA spools.
The new Series 1 3D Printer has a large build volume of 10" x 9"x 9" (254 x 230 x 230 mm) and a printing speeds of up to 90mm/s and travel speeds of up to 250mm/s. It also features an easily removable build surface, so it's easier to take a print off the bed once it's done.

The new Series 1 is priced at $1,695 with lead time 4-8 weeks
3D Printing. This type of printer that is a very powerful printer that can print and produce a three-dimensional product. 3D printers are widely used in various industries such as health, art, architecture, and other industries much. The materials used in the three-dimensional printers use special materials for three-dimensional printer. And media used for the manufacture of three-dimensional model is a special material, so can not use just any material. 

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